FISHERS, Indiana — War causes disease, starvation, violence, economic crises, political instability and poverty in underdeveloped countries. Those consequences pose a significant threat to the international community. International bodies have undergone establishment to maintain peace and aid countries struggling with poverty due to violence. Here is some information about poverty and the successes of the U.N. – A.U. alliance to alleviate it.
The Role of the United Nations
The United Nations is the foremost organization that works to alleviate symptoms of poverty and keep hostile countries in line. Professor Lyons, a former professor of International Affairs, told The Borgen Project in an interview that “the U.N. is the lifeblood of the International Community. It is a geopolitical mediator, an invaluable asset in deterring regimes, stimulating political stability and assisting impoverished nations.” The U.N.’s successes in preventing war, maintaining peace and alleviating poverty are especially evident in its relationship with the African Union. The U.N.’s Office and the African Union works to remedy violence, instability and poverty across the African continent.
African Union Peace Fund
The United Nations General Assembly established the African Union Peace Fund in 1993, where members of the U.N. agreed to donate money to help the African Union with “mediation and preventive diplomacy,” which would help prevent war, maintain peace and ultimately alleviate poverty. By 2020, the African Union had raised $400 million to allocate towards war prevention and poverty alleviation. Thus far, the African Union Peace Fund has effectively maintained peace efforts and augmented diplomacy activities across Africa while bringing in 80,000 peacekeepers with its donations. This is only one of the many successes of the U.N. – A.U. alliance.
Stabilization of Mali
The successes of the U.N. – A.U. alliance entail developing many regional programs. All focus on preventing war, maintaining peace and alleviating poverty. In 2013, coordination between the U.N. and the A.U. created the Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali. Thus far, MINUSMA has stabilized Mali following the Tuareg rebellion, deployed 16,598 total personnel and volunteers to keep the peace and rebuilt Mali’s security sector, all of which have worked to prevent an increase in death and poverty in the war-torn country.
Successes in Sudan and Mozambique
In 2003, the two countries worked together to form the United Nations–African Union Mission in Darfur, Sudan. In response to the mass genocide of nearly 300,000 citizens and 2.6 million refugees, UNAMID raised 26,000 troops to maintain peace during treaty talks. The troops were the largest peacekeeping force to date. UNAMID led to the signing of the Darfur Peace Agreement in 2006. Over the course of UNAMID’s involvement in Sudan, the force demobilized 11,000 combatants, undertook 150 community development projects and mediated peace talks between armed citizens and the Sudanese government.
The coalition also helped house refugees and helped to get rid of the “disease, malnutrition and reduced life expectancy” that war brought to the citizens of Darfur. Among their other missions in Sudan, the U.N. and A.U. worked on strengthening local administrations. Additionally, they implemented the Revitalized Peace Agreement, which has helped solve humanitarian issues related to starvation and food insecurity.
The U.N. – A.U. alliance embarked on a similar mission in Mozambique. They used the strength of the South African Development Community to address humanitarian crises, maintain regional peace and alleviate poverty. The alliance has given humanitarian assistance to more than 5 million Mozambicans. From 1995-2015, the partnership has decreased the number of citizens needing food from 61% to 24%. These efforts have ultimately resulted in regional security for Mozambique, strengthened its economy and further alleviated poverty. So, the success of the U.N.-A.U. alliance is evident in its intervention in Sudan and Mozambique.
Creation of the African Union Development Agency
The successes of the U.N. – A.U. Alliance have resulted in the maintenance of peace and the deterrence of war. Additionally, they have resulted in the African Union Development Agency. The Agency has played an integral role in nation-building following periods of war in Africa. Mainly, the Development Agency focuses on agricultural and infrastructural progression, which potentially should invigorate Africa’s regional economies. In 2019, 26 African countries agreed to “restore 125 million hectares to reduce land degradation and desertification.” Such a vast land restoration project will open up jobs, lead to the cultivation of food used to decrease starvation, strengthen local communities and ultimately spur economic growth. The African countries of Angola, Botswana, Eswatini, Lesotho, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe have created National Agriculture and Investment Plans to ensure agricultural growth.
Agricultural growth has also made possible infrastructural development. The African countries of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia plan to build a high-speed train to deliver efficient travel and promote continental tourism. Moreover, the countries Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia plan on integrating a highway to improve ease of travel. The U.N.-A.U. Partnership is an important step in improving the economic status of the continent. successes of the U.N. – A.U. alliance show through its humanitarian work. The work has consequently provided hope of poverty alleviation to underdeveloped countries in Africa.
– Jacob Crosley